Privacy Policy

My website address is:

What personal data we collect and why we collect it


When visitors leave comments on the site we collect the data shown in the comments form, and also the visitor’s IP address and browser user agent string to help spam detection.

An anonymized string created from your email address (also called a hash) may be provided to the Gravatar service to see if you are using it. The Gravatar service privacy policy is available here: After approval of your comment, your profile picture is visible to the public in the context of your comment.


If you upload images to the website, you should avoid uploading images with embedded location data (EXIF GPS) included. Visitors to the website can download and extract any location data from images on the website.

Contact forms


If you leave a comment on our site you may opt-in to saving your name, email address and website in cookies. These are for your convenience so that you do not have to fill in your details again when you leave another comment. These cookies will last for one year.

If you have an account and you log in to this site, we will set a temporary cookie to determine if your browser accepts cookies. This cookie contains no personal data and is discarded when you close your browser.

When you log in, we will also set up several cookies to save your login information and your screen display choices. Login cookies last for two days, and screen options cookies last for a year. If you select “Remember Me”, your login will persist for two weeks. If you log out of your account, the login cookies will be removed.

If you edit or publish an article, an additional cookie will be saved in your browser. This cookie includes no personal data and simply indicates the post ID of the article you just edited. It expires after 1 day.

Embedded content from other websites

Articles on this site may include embedded content (e.g. videos, images, articles, etc.). Embedded content from other websites behaves in the exact same way as if the visitor has visited the other website.

These websites may collect data about you, use cookies, embed additional third-party tracking, and monitor your interaction with that embedded content, including tracing your interaction with the embedded content if you have an account and are logged in to that website.


Who we share your data with

How long we retain your data

If you leave a comment, the comment and its metadata are retained indefinitely. This is so we can recognize and approve any follow-up comments automatically instead of holding them in a moderation queue.

For users that register on our website (if any), we also store the personal information they provide in their user profile. All users can see, edit, or delete their personal information at any time (except they cannot change their username). Website administrators can also see and edit that information.

What rights you have over your data

If you have an account on this site, or have left comments, you can request to receive an exported file of the personal data we hold about you, including any data you have provided to us. You can also request that we erase any personal data we hold about you. This does not include any data we are obliged to keep for administrative, legal, or security purposes.

Where we send your data

Visitor comments may be checked through an automated spam detection service.

Your contact information

Additional information

How we protect your data

What data breach procedures we have in place

What third parties we receive data from

What automated decision making and/or profiling we do with user data

Industry regulatory disclosure requirements

Hello world! (again)

On April 11, 2017, I began the processes of switching out my old RavenNuke CMS ver 2.5.1 (circa 2007-2017) on, for a brand new WordPress 4.7.3, with a 2017 theme. The surprising thing was that the old CMS had lasted this long, but I wasn’t using it much, as I had gone over to FB by 2009.  I loved the procedural php that was from those days of old!  So there it was.  However, this year has become a WP banner year for me and I have instantiated more than a half dozen new sites since Christmas.  I’m on a roll.

Over the next few weeks, I will massage the old tables into new tables. I will add old and new content, fix styles, and create some new galleries.  I will finesse.  For your part, when revisiting a page, depending on your browser settings, do make full use of your refresh button. After the rebuild is complete the plan is to test a few homegrown plugins and integrate my posts on both FB and my own blog.  Stay tuned.

And, as always, I give candy for bug identifications.

Hugs all round,

Catherin (Cody) Gregory


It was 1986 when I got *my* first computer. Before that I was playing around with other’s Commodores and Tandys. My first lovely was a 8086 XT, with a 30MB hard drive and an amber monitor. I purchased it at Columbia Typerwriter, and office machines company in Victoria, BC. Half of the more than $3,000 price tag was a big birthday present from Mom. I used software called First Choice and studied computer science at North Island College. Once I moved to Victoria, in 1991, I setup my first DOS based BBS with Spitfire software, from Buffalo Creek Software. This software is still available!! However, the modem world would soon change my life and I was hooked. In 1993 I bought both a 386 and a 486 computer systems. The 386 was configured with PC Board Software and Robocomm, and four 14,000 dial-up modems with four phone lines running into my bedroom. The 486 was for my own use. 😉 A few years later I sold the XT for $75.00.

RN version 2.10.01

RavenNuke(tm) Version 2.10.01 Released!

RavenNuke(tm)Finally! A bundled RavenNuke(tm) distribution (based from nuke v7.6) with all of the latest patches installed as well as the latest NukeSentinel(tm) release (2.5.08 as of this writing) and more. This FULL release is basically a fix pack release only – with all fixes to any known issues since v2.10.00 was released – No new features. Simply ftp the files, make a few changes in configuration files, run the installer, and you have a site with all the protection that this one does!

Read all about it and post all questions/comments in the RavenNuke(tm) Support Forums

Study finds that females outnumber males, online in U.S

Last Updated: Friday, April 13, 2007 | 10:27 AM ET
CBC News

Bucking the perception of the internet as a male-dominated world, a study released this week found more women than men are going online in the United States.

An estimated 97.2 million females aged 3 and older will be online in 2007, or 51.7 per cent of the total online population in the U.S., according to a report by eMarketer.

The report, Women Online: Taking a New Look, suggests female internet usage has been ahead of male usage for some time. But now, eMarketer said, other researchers such as comScore Media Matrix, Arbitron and
Edison Media Research support the same conclusion.

According to eMarketer, female usage of the internet in the U.S. has risen 12.4 per cent since 2000, compared with 3.2 percent for males.  In 2011, 109.7 million U.S. females are projected to be online, amounting to 51.9 percent of the online population.

However, women don’t appear to be as enamored of online video as their male counterparts, the study found. Only 66 percent of the estimated 97.2 million females online watch videos, compared with 78 percent of the 90.9 million men.

The author of the eMarketer report said the change in demographics could affect trends in content and usage of the web. ” For girls who have grown up with technology, there is no significant gender gap in internet usage,” said eMarketer senior analyst Debra Aho Williamson. ” The rise of activities that are particularly appealing to young females, such as social networking, will result in even greater usage.”

Studies that look at only adult populations still find more men online than women in the U.S.

The Pew Internet & American Life Project from April 2006 reported 74 percent of adult males in the U.S. were online, compared with 71 percent of women.

A Statistics Canada study of adults conducted in 2005 found a minuscule difference in usage between the sexes, with 68 percent of men versus 67.8 percent of women counting as internet users.

Upgrading the RavenNuke – ver 2.1 is released!

I’ve upgraded 4 sites in the past couple of weeks … tons of work, but it is so worth it.  Finally, after years of treading water in the nuke darkness, here is a cms with logic, clarity, security and a heart.
RavenNuke 2.1 Rocks!  KISS works.

I’ve also had the opportunity to give Joomla another go around on the server.   Joomla is hugely popular. Joomla is slick, but it would be a huge learning curve for me.  And for what? for popularity?  Certainly not for security and clarity. 

Rock On Raven!


Turing Award – First Woman Wins

A 40 year male tradition is broken!
A. M. Turing Award
– !

Frances Allen
Frances Allen

Frances Elizabeth “Fran” Allen (born 1932) is an American computer scientist and pioneer in the field of optimizing compilers. Her achievements include seminal work in compilers, code optimizati

on, and parallelization. She was the first female IBM Fellow and first female Turing Award winner.
— Wikipedia

ACM’s most prestigious technical award is accompanied by a prize of $100,000. It is given to an individual selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community. The contributions should be of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field. Financial support of the Turing Award is provided by the Intel Corporation.

Ham Radio License Notes

Amateur Radio Service is Governed by 3 pieces of legislation:

Notes from va7eef

* Industry Canada RIC – 2 and RIC 3

Radio Communications Act contains:
1. Requirements to obtain license    2. Penalites for failure to do so


The Act states that you cannot:
install, operate or possess a device capable of transmitting electromagnetic waves lower than 3000GHz  without being licenced in accordance with the Act.  Also, the equipment must be located in a place with a station license.

The Regulations encompasses:
the rules for the hobby including 3rd party traffic, bandwidth, permitted frequencies, communications content, power limits, etc.

  • post yellow/white station license
  • 3rd party traffic means a message sent to a non-amateur via an amateur station.
  •  there are some countries which it is forbidden to communicate with   (N. Korea, Iran)
  • Obscene Language
  • Confidentiality
  • You must state your CALLSIGN at the beginning and end of an exchange. You must identify again at 30mins. Identification must be in English or French.
  • You may only communicate with other amateur stations
  • You cannot develop a secret code
  • You cannot play music or commercially recorded material
  • You cannot demand nor accept remuneration for any communication

Sanctions under the Act

  • maximum fine of $5000.00
  • imprisonment for up to 1 year
  • or both

Regulations Continued …


is the portion of the band that your transmitted signal occupies:

Signals below 25MHz shall not exceed 6 kHz bandwidth (except 10.1 10.15 MHz –> 1 kHz )
28.0 – 29.7 MHz shall not exceed 20 kHz bandwidth
50 MHz – 144 MHz shall not exceed 30 kHz bandwidth
200 MHz shall not exceed 100 kHz bandwidth
430 MHz 12 MHz (Amateur Television)

 Transmitter Power:

  1. direct current input power: Basic License – max 250 watts  Advanced License – max 1 kW  :  to the anode or collector or circuit of the transmitter stage
  2. radio frequency output power measured across an impedance matched load: Basic License – max 560 watts peak envelope power. Advanced License – max 2250 watts (for transmitters producing SSB emission)  or  Basic License – max 190 watts carrier  power. Advanced License – max 750 watts (for other types of emission)

Harmful Interference:

  • interference must neither endanger or degrade the use or functioning of safety-related transmitters and receivers (ie police, ambulance, coast guard)
  • or, significantly degrade, obstruct or repeatedly interrupt the use or functioning of radio apparatus or radio sensitive equipment.


  1. Device capable of measuring the transmitted frequency (with the same accuracy as a crystal calibrator), AND
  2. Device capable of preventing and indicating overmodulation, AND
  3. Frequency stability of the transmitter of frequencies below 148 MHz must be equivalent to a crystal-controlled radio.

** All modern transceivers meet these 3 requirements.

Number of Amateur Radio Stations

You may have:

2  Type 1 site-specific stations

1 module station

** Only 2 stations can operate simultaneously (one of which must be the mobile station)

** Station does not mean transmitter, so, station may have many transmitters operating simultaneously


Emergency Communications

Amateur stations have the authority to communicate any message that relates to an emergency (earthquake, flood, tornado) on behalf of any person, government, or relief organization.

Distress: – grave and imminent danger, need immediate assistance: “MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY, CALLSIGN”  Repeat until you get a response. Priority over all other communication.

Urgency:- urgent message concerning safety of person, place, vehicle, plane or vessel. “PAN PAN, PAN PAN, PAN PAN, CALLSIGN”. Priority over all other communication except distress.

Safety: – safety navigation or weather advisories. “SECURITY, SECURITY, SECURITY CALLSIGN”


Safety Code 6

Health Canada’s document “Limits of Exposure to Radiofrequency Fields at Frequencies from 10kHz to 300 GHz”




Basic Certificate (70%)

  • restricted to frequencies above 30MHz
  • lower power below 250W
  • not be the license holder of a repeater
  • not be holder of a club station
  • must use commercially manufactured equipment

Advance Certification (80%+)

  • operate on HF bands
  • below 30 MHz
  • operate less than 1000W

The frequency allocations for Canada in ITU Region 2 are:



Frequency (MHz)

Lower edge

Frequency (MHz)

Upper edge

Maximum Bandwidth




6 kHz

B and 5



6 kHz

B and 5



6 kHz

B and 5



1 kHz

B and 5



6 kHz

B and 5



6 kHz

B and 5



6 kHz

B and 5



6 kHz

B and 5



20 kHz

B and 5



30 kHz




30 kHz




100 kHz




12 MHz

B **



12 MHz

B **



Not Specified

B **



Not Specified

B **



Not Specified

B **



Not Specified

B **



Not Specified

B **



Not Specified




Not Specified

B **



Not Specified




Not Specified




Not Specified

B **



Not Specified




Not Specified

B **



Not Specified

B **



Not Specified





“B” means an Amateur Operators Certificate with Basic Qualification
“5” means an Amateur Operators Certificate with Morse Code (5 w.p.m.) Qualification
Radio Amateurs are secondary users in the bands marked with asterisks **, and may not cause interference to primary users.



VE0 International Waters
VO2 Labrador
VY1 Yukon
VY0 Nunavut

Phonetic Alphabet

alpha beta charlie delta echo
foxtrot golf hotel india julliet
kilo lima mike november oscar
papa quebec romeo sierra tango
uniform victor whiskey xray yankee


Q Code


See More:

Q Code Ques Ans Remember
QRZ Who is calling me? You are being called by … Snooze
QSO Can you communicate with… direct .. or relay? I can communicate with… direct .. or relay So and So
QRM Are you being interfered with? I am being interfered with … 1,2,3,4,5 Radio Man
QRN Are you troubled by static? I am troubled by static … 1,2,3,4,5 Radio Natural
QRS Shall I send more slowly? Send more slowly (wpm) Radio Slower
QTH What is your position? My position is lat long The Home
QSL Can you acknowledge receipt? I can acknowledge receipt. QSL Card
QRG Can your tell me my exact frequency? Your exact frequency is KHz or MHz RiG frequency
QRT Shall I stop sending? Stop Sending. Radio Terminate
QTR What is the exact time? Exact Time is … 2000 Z Time Right Now
QRO Shall I increase my transmitter power? Increase your transmitter power. Ridiculously Overload
QRP Shall I decrease my transmitter power? Decrease transmitter power. Reduce Power
QSY Shall I change frequency? Change frequency to … See You Change
QRH Does my frequency vary? Change frequency to … Radio Hold Frequency
QRI How is the tone of my frequency? The tone of your transmission is 1=good, 2= variable, 3=bad Radio Intonate
QRK What is the intelligibility of my signal (or those of …)?  The intelligibility of your signal is 1=bad, 2=poor, 3=fair, 4=good, 5=excellent Radio Klearly

1 nil

2 slightly

3 moderately

4 severely

5 extremely

Station Diagram

station setup

The DC input power of a transmitter operating at 12 volts and drawing 500 milliamps would be: 6 watts   
P = E × I   =   12 × .5   =   6 watts


Current and Voltage


Current (I) is the flow of electrons through a conductor, and is measured in amperes (A).

Voltage (E) is the electrical pressure, or electromotive force, that causes the electrons to flow, and is measured in volts (V).

Analogy: If you compare electric current to water flowing through a pipe, then voltage is like the water pressure.
The ampere is named for André Marie Ampère, a mathematician and physicist who made major contributions to the theory of electromagnetism.
The volt is named for Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta, a pioneer in the study of electricity and inventor of the electric battery.






Resistance (R) is the opposition to current, and is measured in ohms (Ω).

A resistor is a circuit component that provides resistance.  Resistors are made from materials with moderate resistance, like carbon.

Bad Beer Rots Our Young Guts But Vodka Goes Well.

The Standard EIA Color Code Table per EIA-RS-279 is as follows:

Color 1st band 2nd band 3rd band (multiplier) 4th band (tolerance) Temp. Coefficient
Black 0 0 ×100    
Brown 1 1 ×101 ±1% (F) 100 ppm
Red 2 2 ×102 ±2% (G) 50 ppm
Orange 3 3 ×103   15 ppm
Yellow 4 4 ×104   25 ppm
Green 5 5 ×105 ±0.5% (D)  
Blue 6 6 ×106 ±0.25% (C)  
Violet 7 7 ×107 ±0.1% (B)  
Gray 8 8 ×108 ±0.05% (A)  
White 9 9 ×109    
Gold     ×0.1 ±5% (J)  
Silver     ×0.01 ±10% (K)  
None       ±20% (M)  

Note: red to violet are the colors of the rainbow where red is low energy and violet is higher energy.

Component Symbol Photo Description
Resistor Opposes the flow of electricity and converts electric energy to heat.  Commonly used to limit current flow in a circuit.
Variable Resistor A resistor with a wiper arm that has a terminal connected to it, allowing you to vary the resistance.  When hooking them up, the middle terminal is always the wiper arm.  Also called a potentiometer.


Series versus Parallel Circuits

Resistors in seriesResistors in parallel

A series circuit is wired so that current passes through a series of components, one after the other.

In a parallel circuit, current branches out through multiple paths.  Kirchhoff’s Current Law says that the sum of the currents flowing into any branching point is equal to the sum of the currents flowing out.  In other words:

IA  =  IB + IC


Note: What matters here is the wiring, not the physical arrangement of the components.


German physicist Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824-1887) made major contributions to our understanding of electricity, spectroscopy, and other fields.




Ohm’s Law


Ohm’s Law shows the relationship between:

  • electromotive force or voltage (E) in volts (V)
  • current (I) in amperes (A)
  • and resistance (R) in ohms (Ω)

This law is expressed by three equivalent formulas:

E = I × R — to determine voltage

I = E / R — to determine current

R = E / I — to determine resistance

A rule of “thumb”
for remembering
Ohm’s Law

Move the mouse
over a letter
to see its formula


An ohm is defined as the resistance of a circuit in which a 1 ampere current flows when 1 volt is applied.

German physicist, Georg Simon Ohm (1787-1854), who formulated Ohm’s Law.




Amateur Certification – Fact Sheet – Industry Canada

RIC-2 – Standards for the Operation of Radio Stations in the Amateur Radio Service

PHP Rocks

I had a great time at the Vancouver PHP conference last week.  Eventually I settled down and tried not to get overwhelmed by the learning experience.

Would be nice to have …

Vancouver PHP 2008
5 minute Flash sessions in the theater
Show me my faults sessions … mentor/newbie gatherings
More hot water.
Women on the expert panel.
Brunch at the beach.

Kudos to all the organizers.  I know it ain’t easy. You rocked.

Ver 2

Raven Nuke 76
Raven Nuke 76

The sun is shining, the days are longer, 2007 is a turn it around year.
lol … as if moving through space wasn’t already happening.

New CoreWare for!


RavenNuke so rocks the cms planet.


The sun is shining again, and the garden needs work…


Security is a process, not a result. It is a process which is difficult to adopt under normal conditions; the problem is compounded when it spans several job descriptions. All the system level security in the world is rendered useless by insecure web-applications. The converse is also true; programming best practices, such as always verifying user input, are useless when the code is running on a server which hasn’t been properly hardened. Securing forward facing GNU/Linux web servers can seem like a daunting task, but it can be made much easier by breaking the process into manageable portions.” Hardening Linux Servers